Research on Gender Biases and Intersectionality in Citation Analysis and Practices

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This meta synthesis finds that citation practice and thus citation indices are not normative measures of scholarly productivity and impact but are highly influenced by any number of factors in addition to merit and quality and are subject to any number of ways that they are consciously and unconsciously manipulated to the disadvantage of out groups. Thus, the use of citation indices as single measures of quality and impact directly embed biases into our standard measure of merit.  The work was conducted by Dr. Beth Michneck as one of the ARC Network's Virtual Visiting Scholars Program.